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anal fissure - an anal fissure, also called an anorectal fissure, is a linear split or tear in the lining (anoderm) of the lower anal canal. Most anal fissures happen when a large, hard stool overstretches the anal opening and tears the delicate anoderm. An anal fissure is a small tear in the thin, moist tissue (mucosa) that lines the anus. An anal fissure may occur when you pass hard or large stools during a bowel movement. Anal fissures typically cause pain and bleeding with bowel movements. You also may experience spasms in the ring of muscle at the end of your anus (anal sphincter). An anal fissure is a break or tear in the skin of the anal canal. Anal fissures may be noticed by bright red anal bleeding on toilet paper and undergarments, or sometimes in the toilet. If acute they are painful after defecation, but with chronic fissures, pain intensity often reduces. Anal fissures usually extend from the anal opening and are usually located posteriorly in the midline. Tough tissue called fascia surrounds the anus and attaches it to nearby structures. Anal fistula an abnormal channel developing between the anus and the skin of the buttocks. Detecting abnormal anal cells could provide an early warning of developing anal cancer, just as abnormal cervical cells provide an early warning of cervical cancer. The researchers believe that the rate of biopsy-proved hsil in gay men with or without hiv in this study supports the need for effective screening methods in this population. Squamous dysplasia of the anal canal, more commonly termed acin, may be found in tissues removed for a variety of disorders. 118 similar to its cervical counterpart, acin has been identified in anal mucosa adjacent to invasive carcinomas of the anal canal, as well as as an incidental finding in resection specimens from this region. 119 its prevalence in the general population is estimated at 2. They may also prolapse through the anal canal and appear as reddish, moist, protruding masses, typically located in one or more of the positions illustrated. Prolapse of the rectum on straining for a bowel movement, the rectal mucosa, with or without its muscular wall, may prolapse through the anus, appearing as a donut or rosette of red tissue. anal cancer is a rare form of cancer that affects the tissues of the anus. We explain what you need to know about its causes and how its diagnosed. The two acronyms used to describe anal lesions are hsil and lsil. Hsil is an acronym for high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, and lsil means low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. lymph tissue under the anal inner lining (mucosa) is normal, but these overgrowths are not. Hypertrophied anal papillae are benign growths of connective tissue that are covered by squamous cells.